British study identifies nerve cells prone to damage by Alzheimer's disease



Alzheimer's disease is a devastating condition that cannot be stopped or treated currently, the main cause of the disease is the loss of neurons and other brain cells in the brain also known as degeneration, and it leads to problems with memory and other cognitive functions, and a recent study at Cardiff University in Britain showed that the nerve cells that cross About a specific protein called "tau" is more prone to degeneration, and according to a report by the sciencealert scientific website, understanding which neurons are most at risk may allow researchers to develop targets for potential therapies in the future.


Researchers can tell which neurons die first or show increased vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease based on their location in the brain and their shape, but they do not know which genes or proteins these neurons express, so knowing these factors is important to recognize and identify the changes in specific cells that occur. When disease is present.


Scientists conducted a post-mortem brain analysis on people with Alzheimer's disease to see how advanced the disease was, and they began to look for accumulations of tau protein in different parts of the brain, in people with Alzheimer's disease, tau proteins aggregate in cells, which usually leads to cell death The tau accumulates differently. In different brain regions, which is why some areas show a greater degree of degeneration.


After determining disease progression, the researchers then focused their attention on two specific regions of the brain, the cerebral cortex and the superior frontal gyrus, the entorhinal cortex involved in memory, while the superior prefrontal gyrus plays a role in functions associated with self-awareness.


Tau accumulates in the entorhinal cortex in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease, but it does not accumulate until later in the upper frontal gyrus.By looking at two regions with different loss of cells in different stages of the disease, scientists can look for differences in the same types of cells. This may also allow them to reveal what makes them vulnerable, and when they become vulnerable.


The researchers looked at the different types of neurons and cells in the entorhinal cortex, and examined the amount of tau protein they had accumulated, as well as the proteins these cells express.


The researchers found that a certain type of neuron called excitatory neurons (which generate "action" signals in the brain) were the most vulnerable cells to be examined, and they found that these neurons showed a decrease of approximately 50% in their numbers during the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. This study provides a better understanding of which cells are most vulnerable to Alzheimer's disease.

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